Hotel Gelios

- Where Russia's sun rises

The 1,500 km long and 472,000 sq. km. Kamchatka Peninsula is situated between the Okhotsk Sea on the west and the Bering Sea on the east. Due to its previous isolation on account of its strategic military significance, low population density, few roads, small and dispersed settlements, and little large-scale development, most of the peninsula has remained in a largely intact condition and, thus, still possesses globally important biodiversity.
A great number of rare and unique species and subspecies of plants and animals inhabit the peninsula. Approximately 15,000 Kamchatka brown bears are found in the pockets throughout the peninsula. The peninsula is also the centre of distribution for the largest eagle in the world, the rare Steller sea eagle. Sixty percent of these eagles make their home on the peninsula. The peninsula possesses some of the world’s greatest diversity of salmon, trout, and char. All species of Pacific salmon (an estimated one third of the Pacific population) spawn in Kamchatka rivers.
Total population of Kamchatka is 376,900 residents, less than 1 person per square kilometre. Around Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii, the peninsula’s capital and largest city (population is about 250.000), steep ridges and mountains form the boundaries of Avacha Bay, one of the world’s grandest natural harbours and a safe mooring spot for seamen since the 18th century. The Bay doesn’t freeze solid in winter and ships bring supplies year-round to Kamchatka through the post.
The road system from Petropavlovsk heads southwest about 25 km to Elizovo, the second largest city (population 36,000) in Kamchatka. From Elizovo , the road turns north and continues with pavement only to about 100 km from the city before turning into a wide gravel road. This gravel road is maintained year round and is the lifeline for villages stretched over 600 km, all the way to the town of Klyuchi and to Ust-Kamchatsk.
The area’s major industry is commercial fishing, pumping millions of roubles a year into the economy through the sale of salmon, cod, halibut, crab, shrimp, and other marine products. Commercial fishing vessels ply Kamchatka’s waters under fishing quotas managed by Moscow. Summer seasons focus on salmon fisheries and winter on offshore fisheries.
Basic types of tourism in Kamchatka:
• walking tourism;
• mountain tourism;
• rafting on the rapid mountain rivers;
• bike trips through the wild country;
• diving in the coastal areas of Kamchatka;
• hang glider.
Hot springs are the geothermal wealth of Kamchatka. Hundreds of hot natural springs were formed in Kamchatka thanks to volcanic activities. Hot springs "are scattered" on the entire territory of peninsula and their therapeutic quality is one of the unique particularities of the peninsula.

Climate of Kamchatka:
The absolute temperature maximum is +34`C, the absolute minimum is -24:26`C on the islands and -49:60`C in central and northern parts of the peninsula.
The number of days with temperature over +20`C in summer: in coast area 1-6, in the valley of Kamchatka river 35-55.
Maximum amount of precipitation up to 2600 mm a year (south-east seaside).
Maximum wind speed in winter up to 40 m/c (at the seaside).
The climate of the Kamchatka peninsula is very peculiar and influenced by the ocean and seas, relief, wind monsoons and its stretching from south to north. While traveling you can meet with the diverse climatic zones, including maritime zone on the coasts, a continental zone in the central valley and an arctic zone in the north of the peninsula.
Summer is a time of rapid growth and flowering as all of the flora and fauna hurries to complete a year's worth of activity before winter returns. Summer daylight hours are long. It can rain during summer and there may still be snow on the ground, particularly on the altitudes.
Volcanoes, glaciers, sea around take part in forming of the Kamchatka's climate.

- Kamchatka's cities

Petropavlovsk Kamchatskii:
In September 1739, 12 men were dispatched by Vitus Bering to build a small residency for the officers of the St. Peter und St. Paul, the 2 boats that would take Bering and Chirikov to Alaska. The next year, Nevigator Ivan Elagin created the first marine chart of Avachinsky Bay  with the names "Saint Peter" and "Saint Paul". In a letter to Vitus Bering, he described "Petropavlovsk Bay" where the future city would be built. Alexey Chirikov, Bering's partner in the 2nd Kamchatka Expedition of 1741 wrote of "Petropavlovsk" when describing the area.
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii stretches around the northeast side of Avacha Bay, and is the hub of the peninsula's economy, history, and home to over half the territory's population. Petropavlovsk is the location of the Institute of Volcanology, researching Kamchatka's volcanoes and collaborating with international experts on volcanoes, forewarning air traffic controllers of volcanoes spewing ash clouds into international space.

Paratunka valley just 30 minutes drive from from the airport and 45 minutes drive from Petropavlovsk is a wonder of geothermal activity. In this area are nearly 30 hot swimming pools fed by wells drilled to bring un the naturally hot and mineralized waters. Here visitors may rent a room or cabin at one of several recreational facilities or simply come for a dip before returning to their home or hotel in the city. Sublime in the only word to describe the pleasure of sinking back into a thermal hot water. One of the best Hotel in Paratunka is Hotel Gelios.

Travelers to Kamchatka land at the airport in the city of Yelizovo, approximately 30 km. from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii.
On a clear day, Yelizovo offers a stupendous view of the Avachinsky group of volcanoes. Russians settled in Yelizovo about 150 years ago although Itelmen people have lived in the area for thousand of years. The first name of the small village was “Zavoiko” after the Governor of Kamchatka, V.S.Zavoiko. After the revolution, patriots renamed Zavoiko for a hero of the Soviet revolution Yelizov and the city developed as a district agricultural and administrative center. Today Yelizovo is a city of about 35,000 people and the Yelizovo District’s capital. The community includes many service business as well as small shops, an open market (closed Mondays) and grocery stores. In the city, right by the main square, there is a local museum, where you can visit the exhibitions of local painters! 7 km. from the city’s center is a nationally ranked ski area, Moroznaya, open usually November through April.

The village of Malki is a wonderful source of mineral water and geothermal springs. Here, not far from the Malki Bystraya River, is one of the few car camping areas on the Peninsula. During summer, especially on weekends, the area is packed with picnicking and camping Russians. There are volleyball nets, an outdoor concert stage, and changing facilities for those wishing to use the hot springs. Often on weekends there is live music onstage. Several wells both for geothermal and naturally effervescent mineral water are found in this territory. The mineral water is bottled and sold throughout Kamchatka and the Russian Far East. Also through the territory flows the Malki Bystraya River and Malki is a favorite starting point for rafting tours through the Central Mountain Range towards the Sea of Okhotsk. Fishing for char can be excellent but competition is heavy as the river is a favorite fishing spot for locals.

North along the road and across the Kamchatka River is the village of Kozirevsk. To get there, one must ferry across the river. In winter, cars drive across the ice on the river. For a few weeks in May or early June, due to ice flows, one can't get across the river. Once the ice goes out, the ferry continues its service. Kozirevsk is a village of about 1500 people at the base of the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes.

Historic Milkovo, 190 km from Petropavlovsk, is built along the banks of the Kamchatka River. In 1697 the first Russian fort in Kamchatka - the Verkhne-Kamchatski ostrog was built about 12 km south of Milkovo. Milkovo was found as an agricultural settlement in 1743 and envolved as a center for hunters and trappers who harvested furs both for the tsar and their own profit. In Soviet times the city was the center of the agricultural and timber industries for Kamchatka. To date most of Milkovo's tourism and recreation development has centered on hunting and fishing. Fish in the rivers include salmon, char, rainbow, and grayling. The area's coniferous forests date back to Pleistocene times, and are mixed with stone and white birch. Climate is continental with hot summers and cold winters. Milkovo is the center of the Kamchadal, Russian and Itelmen people, who have blended their cultural traditions. The district's population is about 12,400 people.

Esso likes to be called “Kamchatka’s Switzeland” for its location in a high mountain valley surrounded by beautiful snow-capped mountains with rushing rivers flowing through the village. With about 2000 year-round residents, Esso is favourite summer vacation spot for Kamchatka visitors. Esso is made un of wooden buildings and the dirt streets give the impression of yesteryear. Esso boasts one of the best museums in Kamchatka with a fine ethnographic collection in a beautiful wooden building of distinctly Kamchatka architecture on lovely grounds. Local cafes post advertisements for horseback riding trips into the Bystrinsky Park, for white water rafting, and hiking tours. One of the highlights of Esso is the huge natural hot water-fed swimming pool in the center of the village, open year round. Many homeowners supplement their income by renting a room to visitors and its possible to find inexpensive simple accommodations or to rent a fine and well-appointed hotel room. Each late March, Esso is the site of the start of Kamchatka’s Beringia Sled Dog Race to the Okhotsk Sea coastal village of Palana.

- Volcanoes of Kamchatka:

Kamchatka's volcanoes have never been bloodthirsty: the natives of Kamchatka can hardly recall eruptions that carried death there. A dark silhouette of volcano against the clean dawning skies does not imply a threat - it is usually a token of nice weather for the people of Kamchatka. It is still hard, however, living in such proximity to the volcanoes, to get used to the idea that they are just some geological objects. The silence alongside the volcanoes is of a special sort, the one that fills the soul with an incomprehensible combination of anxiety and peace. Everything looks strange and unusual; you are gazing around as if perceiving a scrutinizing glance of another universe: you feel scared and at the same time happy, for this scrutinizing glance makes you feel someone's unbound power spreading over you - perhaps that sole true power you want to surrender to:
Which of Kamchatka's volcanoes is the most beautiful? There is not an unargued leader, but one can certainly name the first three - though, as it goes, there are few objective criteria to assess beauty - nevertherless, the three volcanoes are Kluchevskoy, Koryaksky and Kronotsky. All the three can be good candidates to symbolize volcanic Kamchatka due to their total assets. The feature of Kluchevskoy, its height, (the absolute heights of the volcanoes are 4,750m, 3,456m and 3,528m respectively), is not as significant as it looks as the first glance. The greatest Eurasian volcano has made nearly 5 kilometers of height due to the fact that it was formed on a specific geological "pedestal", a slope of ancient volcano while the actual height (a relative one) is 3,000m, i.e. less than the height of Koryaksky (3,300m) or Kronotsky (3,100).

Considering the shape of a volcano's cone or "marquee" as it was figuratively called in Krasheninnikov's times, a lot of people with no doubts would prefer the one of the Kronotsky volcano. The geometrically regular, ribbed cone crowned with an icy hat looks in the waters of the biggest Kamchatka's lake. In its beauty and majesty the Koryaksky volcano does not yield to its two "brothers". It forms a magnificent ensemble together with the Avachinsky volcano, an integral part of the panorama of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. So, a lot of natives of the city have almost relative feelings towards it. On the other hand, each of Kamchatka's volcanoes has the beauty of its own. There are over 300 of them on the peninsula, among which 29 are still active.

Kluchevskoy Volcano:
Kluchevskoy is the biggest alive volcano in Eurasia - 4,750m over the sea level. It has a perfect, incredibly beautiful cone. Together with Kamen (Stone), Bezymyanny (Unnamed), Plosky (Flat) Tolbachik it forms the Kluchevskaya group of volcanoes. The volcano is about 8,000 years old. The first registered eruption was in 1697. It was registered during the famous travel of Vladimir Atlasov, a Kamchatka explorer. In average, the eruptions took place every five years, at certain time periods they happened annually, and sometimes there were continuous eruptions lasting for a number of years. However, they have never imposed a severe danger upon the inhabitants of Kluchi, a town 30 km away from the volcano. The eruptions are accompanied with explosions, the throw-outs of gas and ashes and ash falls. The most powerful eruptions of the Kluchevakaya, like those in 1944-45, came out from the major central crater, but the volcano's activity is also characterized by "parasite" craters 60-200m tall that stand 8-25 km away from the major one.

The first ascent to the top of the volcano was executed by a mountain guide, Daniel Gaus, in 1788. Since then plenty of dare-devils went up to the crater of Kluchevskov.

Karymsky Volcano:
Karymsky volcano is a relatively short (1,486 m) and young (6,100years old) volcano, the most active one in Kamchatka. There have been 23 eruptions in this century only, the latest one started in 1996 and was going on for two years gradually fading. The eruptions of Karymsky volcano are accompanied with bursts and throw-outs of ash and bombs going out from the central crater, with lava effusing. As a rule, the lava of Karymsky are so glutinous that the flaming torrents do not always reach the foot of the volcano. The latest eruption of Karymsky volcano would have been like any other one, but it was different coinciding with an under-water eruption in the Karymsky lake that is 6 km away from the volcano. It lasted not more than 18-20 hours, but that short period included over 100 under-water bursts each accompanied with waves tsunami 15 meters high. The lake was actually boiling. The temperature went up rapidly, and salt and acid components reached the concentration that killed all the life in the lake including the school of "kokani", a lake species of sock-eye salmon cultivated by ichthyologists in the Karymsky lake. As a result of this eruption, the Karymsky lake that used to be ultra-fresh turned into the biggest natural reservoir of acid water in the world.

Maly Semyachek Volcano:
It is a volcanic mountain range 3 km long with 3 craters on its crest. In its southern crater (the crater of Troitski), there is an unusual acid lake in the depth of 170m. The temperature in this opaque, sometimes turquoise sometimes green lake, ranges from +27`C to +42`C while the level of mineralization is equal to an average concentration of sulphate and hydrochloric acids. The size of the lake amazes: it is about half kilometer wide and is 140m deep.
It is assumed that the acid lake developed quite recently. The hypothesis says that it was the result of eruption unnoticeable for people. Anyway, today Maly Semyachek is one of Kamchatka's natural wonders, and those who managed to reach its foot should climb to the edge of the crater. The view opening to your eyes is unforgettable: a 200 m gap of the crater, the smoking green lake, the wild play of colours on the walls inside. Then the weather is clear and windy, you can descend into the crater. You can stay on the slate-black beach to enjoy a poisonous emerald surf and water-spouts araising over the lake's surface. The coastal breeze that causes cough will make you leave the abode of underground "spirits" soon.

Avachinski volcano:
Avachinski volcano is active and nice-structured as Somma-Vezuvi, with perfect cone (2751 altitude). At the top of cone was crater 350 m. In diameter and 220 m. In depth, but in 1991 in process of eruption, crater was filled with Lava, and now at different places is active fumaroles, which deposits sulphur.

Koryakskii volcano:
Koryak is stratospheric volcano with perfect rib cone (3456 m. Altitude). >From the powerful circus at the top and others places descend glaciers. Almost at the top part along the cracks steamly fumaroles, and in the crater is warm plates. Rocks at those places are changed to coloured clay with abundant deposit of sulphur, gyps, amonia etc.

Viluchinski volcano:
Viluchinski volcano is on the south-west part from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, behind Avacha bay. Volcano is not active, has perfect cone (2175 m. altitude). Top of it has different rocks divided by ice. Lava and pyroclastic, changed to coloured, because of activity of fumaroles. Slopes of volcano are radical going down from the top, but some of them starts from the middle. Upper section at the north-west slope is full of ice. Structure of volcano is lava and pyroclistic of mineral structure. At the foundation of volcano is acid rocks, and at south-east part are hot springs.

Mutnovski volcano:
Mutnovski volcano is a compound volcanic massif of height 2323 m. above sea level. It has numerous and various fumarolic fields where one can see all different forms of modern gas-hydro-thermal activity with magnificent structures of volcanic sulfur of 2,5 m. high and 5 m. in diameter. Some of these structures contains rare minerals, such as markazite and metacinnabarite. Not far from active craters, glaciers and lakes thermal springs are located. The most impressive of them are Severo-Mutnovskiye and Datchnye with vapor-gas spurts, boiling mud, hot lakes and heated bogs.
River Vulkannaya flows down from the crater of volcano forms 80 meters-high waterfall and deep canyon Opasny. All this specific features make Mutnovski volcano unique and allow to put it in a line with the most outstanding thermal fields of the world.

- Brown Bear:

Today an average brown bear weighs 150-200 kg, the ones weighing 400 are rare to meet while those who "make" 600 kg are a general dream. Perhaps the reason of Kamchatka bears' unagressive personality is their fish "diet" that they have preferred to the meat one.
Since times immemorial salmon has been the basic food for the Master of Kamchatka and the major source of fat stocks that allowed them to survive through the long Kamchatka's winter. However, after leaving the den, the bear is ready to eat anything, but still does not represent a threat to the warm-blooded except ground squirrels which he sometimes digs out right from the winter burrow. It may seem incredible, but the huge predator obediently has an almost vegetarian diet for several months before the rivers are filled up with fish. In July you can observe an idyllic picture of brown bears grazing like domestic cattle in the forest's ' berry fields and in the coastal tundra.
Kamchatka's bears are pragmatic and cowardly. They are satisfied and safe from a lot of life troubles that bears in the Siberian taiga face. That is why they usually resolve a doubt in favor of escape, and nine out of ten decent Kamchatka's bears will follow this mode.
However the tenth one may judge differently. Then you will have time neither to run away nor to shoot, you won't have time to get scared.
If you are serious in your intention to meet a Kamchatka's bear, forget a childish fairy-tale image of a foolish bumpkin. This is an animal of enormous strength and endurance, tremendous reaction and excellent move. Their teeth gnaw a bone of any size, their claws can shift boulders, he can climb almost vertical slopes, keep sitting in the icy water for hours. He is a wonderful swimmer, he can catch up with a horse at a short distance, however he can not run long distances, but, on the other hand, he is the first class walker that covers a good hundred kilometers in a day. The only thing he is really deprived of is climbing trees: he is presumably too heavy for that.

- Nalychevo Park:

Nalychevo Park combines stunning mountain scenery with vast expanses of tundra and coastal seascapes. The presence volcanic and ancient glacial landscapes, together with the specific microclimatic conditions of the valley of the Nalycheva River have produced unique richness and diversity of flora and fauna, many of which are presented in Russia's Red Book.

- Kronotsky Preserve:

Local people with the goal of conserving the sable population created this protected area 122 years ago. One of Russia's largest, and the oldest Preserve in Russia, Kronotsky is a multi-faceted jewel covering 1,007,134 hectares of land and the 3-mile zone of 152 miles of shoreline. The Preserve's mountains, glaciers, active and extinct volcanoes, rivers, lakes, islands, beaches, and rugged shoreline give the preserve a variety of ecosystems and remarkable biodiversity. The protected area abounds with wildlife, marine or terrestial, to watch and photograph:

Uzon Kaldera:

Uzon Caldera (this is a term to specify a ring-like hollow) developed 40 thousand years ago on the site of a huge volcano destroyed by a set of bursting eruptions. The last cataclysm inside the kaldera (8,500 years ago) left its trace as a blasting crater about one kilometer in diameter. The following centuries of intensive hydro-thermal activity have developed a unique symbiosis of volcanoes and wildlife in Uzon. Being a part of the Kronotsky Zapovednik, it is registered as a natural site specially cared for.

The Uzon Caldera is about 10 km in diameter, and inside it, behind steep walls, there is a complete "museum" collection of everything that Kamchatka is famous for: hot sources and cold rivers, poisonous mud cauldrons and pure lakes full of fish, a berry tundra and a birch forest, mountains and bogs, animals and birds. Geologists and botanists, geochemists and microbiologists, zoologists and volcanologists, i.e. the scientists of various specialisations, strive to get to Uzon. There in hot sources natural minerals are born as if in a laboratory retort; incredible algae and bacteria live in the burning solution for whom the poisonous boiling water is the most desirable environment; enormous bears in overalls of steam wander on Uzon's paste; swans roll-call in warm small lakes.

There is hardly another place on Earth where autumn beauty as bright as it were short. Uzon in autumn is unforgettable: the tundra is vigorously scarlet, Erman's birches sparkle with gold, steamy pillars are going up into blue skies like the smoke of sacrificial fires. Quiet music sounds in birch forests in the morning: these are hoar-frosted leaves falling with a jingle. With the first gusts of autumn storms, however, the leaves fall down, the tundra fades with the frosts, and only mud cauldrons keep boiling colorful paste.

The Valley of Geysers:

A lot of wonderful sites are preserved in the Kronotsky Zapovednik, but nine of them is comparable with the uniqueness of the Valley of Geysers - an indisputable World's Miracle, the most precious natural relic of the mankind legacy.

The Valley of geysers was discovered not long ago - in April, 1941 when a hydrologist of the Kronotsky Zapovednik, Tatiana Ustinova, and a guide-ltelmen, Anisifor Krupenin went up along the riverbed of the Shumnaya ("Noisy"), and, entering a narrow passageway between the rocks, stopped not far from the mouth of an unknown tributary.

There is still snow everywhere in April. Somehow making themselves comfortable on a steep snow-covered slope, exhausted travellers decided to have a snack. There was a thawed patch on the opposite shore with a light steam over it, and suddenly a spurt of hot water bursted straight towards them!

The scared people started off - time to save their souls! - but soon realised that the boiling water could not reach them, and the rain of cooled splashes was not dangerous. The gush stopped as abruptly as it started, so Ustinova realized that she saw an authentic geyser, the first one in Kamchatka ever seen. She named it "Pervenets"(The First-Born").

There are over 20 big geysers in the Valley of geysers. Velikan(Giant), Zhemchuzhny (Pearly), Sakharny (Sugary), Troynoy (Triple), Konus (Cone), Fontan (Fountain), Maly (Small), Bolshoy (Big), Shchel (Slit) - here are some names. There are geysers that gush forth every 10-12 minutes, while others may erupt once in 4-5 hours. The wreathes of steam, fountains of boiling water, incredible colours of slopes, hot water streaming along them and profuse greenery of grasses and trees create an enchanting spectacle. Each person getting to the Valley of geysers for the first time, experiences its hypnotic power. The head is spinning with surprise and amazement. But the Valley of geysers does not forgive heedlessness, and collects an annual "tribute" of scalded extremities. The most dangerous spots in the Valley of geysers are covered with grass looking harmless: you sometimes feel an irresistible temptation to step on the green meadow. It is difficult for a person unaware of the Valley's perfidy to imagine that the attractive cover often conceals burning mud, and the foot not gaining a support, will go deep down as if in butter. It is dangerous not to wear boots, though not any pair of boots will protect you from burns - the burning marshy ground is sometimes over 1m deep. The only thing you can trust in the valley is wormwood. This well-known plain plant prefers absolutely reliable spots where, for some mysterious laws, the devil of the underground world has no right to step on. Where wormwood grows, you can pause with relief, sit or even lie down without a fear that the ground will open wide under you or your trousers will get destroyed by acid.

On October 4, 1981, the Valley of Geysers experienced a shock. Typhoon Elsa blowing over Kamchatka, provoked such rains that the water level in the river Geysernaya went several meters up. The swelled stream of mud and stones pulled 3-meter boulders along the river-bed destroying everything in its way. Geyser Bolshaya Pechka (Big Oven) died. Source Malakhitovi Grot (Malachite Grotto), the beauty and pride of the valley, was badly damaged.

Whatever great the losses inflicted by natural calamities may be, they can by no means justify human barbarism. No doubt, if in 1967 "wild" tourism had not been turned into a planned one, and in 1977 had not been prohibited at all, the Valley of geysers would have had a miserable look now: the tourists would have pilfered geysers for souvenirs. Finally in the early 90s the basically required tourist infrastructure was established to receive groups coming on excursions mainly by helicopters.

One should not be an environmentalist to understand that the limit of endurance of the Valley facing such tourist load is rather low. This is not Yellowstone Park with the capacity of 3 million people a year where you can park a car right at the geyser. The Valley of Geysers is a tiny plot full of wonders like a treasure-house and hidden by Nature deep in the mountains of Kamchatka.

- Thermal hot springs:

Sublime is the only word to describe the pleasure of sinking back into a natural hot spring. Kamchatka's volcanic birthright bestows on the peninsula hundreds of wild hot springs, some of which, have been "tamed" and developed to wonderful hot swimming pools. Whatever your pleasure, from truly wild to a spa experience, Kamchatka's healing hot water is one of the most unique experiences on the peninsula.

- Nalychevo thermal hot springs:

Nalychevo thermal hot springs are the biggest thermal carbonic acid springs at Kamchatka; unloading between Goryachaya and Zholtaya rivers at square more than 2 km2.
At the foot of Kruglaya mountain deposits of springs created a big travers plate more than 50000 km2 with dome, wich consist from carbonic and chalybeate-arsenic deposits (dome was called "boiler"). Along the plate a lot of hot springs come out, which form brook. Ceround the dome are thermal swamps.

Along the river Goryachaya concentrated outlets of therm as short hot streams, which falls into the cold river, and also as shallow lakes, puddles and swamps.

At those streams and lakes growing great colony of thermophilic aquatic plants. Which form manycoloured dense pillows. The same springs at the river Zholtaya (600m from mouth). From boiler till Goryachaya river in 1955 was made four chinks, and one of them is active till now. In this group is about 100 thermal springs with temperature from 14 till 75'C. Their visible debit is about 80 l/sec., and together with self-outpouring of chinks is 110 l/sec. Waters of Nalichevo springs are one of the seldom hydrochemical types; carbonic acid, arsenic, boric, siliceons chloride-sodium-calcium with medium mineralization; Springs are different one from another by their degree of dilute with superficial cold waters. They are weak-acid or weak-alkaline (pH 5,9-7,8) with general mineralization from 3,7 till 12 grams per liter and contain a lot of seldom elements (iodine, arsenic, borine, and others). The same elements are in precipitations (in high concentration), which forms in places of outlets of waters surface.

- Malkinski thermal springs:

Malkinski thermal hot springs are in picturesque place in 5km to East from Malki village, on the left bank of Kluchoyvka river (left tributary of Bistraya river). Valley of river is 0,4-0,5km in wide and both sides are limited with elevates covered with stone-birch forest. At small thermal plate, covered with pebbles, is 6 groups of gryphones (in them cold river water mixing with thermal water). Waters of springs are hydrocarbonic-chloride-sulphate-sodium with general mineralization till 0,7 g/l with cremnium and arsenic acids. Structure of gas is nitrogenic.

- Verchne-Paratunski thermal hot springs:

Verchne-Paratunski thermal hot springs are in the valley of Paratunka river, in 2,5 km higher from falling in it Karimshino river. Springs are at the slope of Goryachaya hill which divides valleys of that rivers, at 80m in high. Places of outlets of springs are visible, because of steam and typical plants; Hot springs (more than 16 of them) are form three parallel warm streams. In 70m from sources of stream is warm waterfall. Temperature of water in springs is about 39-70'C. Water is chloride-sulphat calcium-sodium moderate siliceous (till 45 mg/l) with general mineralization about 1g/l and arsenic in it (0,3 mg/l). Structure of free gas is nitrogen (97%).

- Bolshiye Banniye thermal hot springs:

Bolshiye Banniye thermal hot springs are famous from time of visiting them by Krasheninnikov S.P. (1737-1740y.). It is on the left side of Bannaya river and has 24 groups on the thermal square (1,5 km.) It has more than 550 boiling, seetheing, fountaining sometimes with geysers focused at the outlets of thermal water, and also has mud boilers. Walls of single gryphones and places around it are covered with geyserits. Big plates of geyserits are testify about activity of springs in the past. Chemical structure of water mainly is sulphursodium with general mineralization about 0,7-1,4 grams per liter with cremni acid in it (300mg/l). In gas structure mainly is nitrogen and CO2. Borine and arsenic is in small amount in water and geyserit.


- Spawning of salmon:

Every year in mid June the main event in the life of Kamchatka's rivers and lakes begins, i.e. salmon spawning. Billions of salmons obeying a powerful ancient instinct come back from the sea tj streams and rivers where they have sprung from the grain of roe, and where they must complete their life cycle. Changing silvery scales for bright marital attire, they rush up the river to meet love and death, and there is no force able to make them turn back. It is only once the destiny gives a chance to the Pacific salmon to experience the great enigma of new life engendering. All its energy accumulated in the ocean will be spent up to the very end. The first and the last love of salmon is so string that leaves no chance for survival. Spawning finished salmons, faded, with white blistered spines try to hold themselves in the rapid, but they are carried away and thrown to the stones. The sand-bars are crammed full with rotting fish. Thousands of dead salmons turn into life-giving silt mixing with poor soil of Kamchatka. And spawned and fertilized grains of roe keep lying in the holes considerately made by the parent at the bottom. A year later fries (young fish) leave Kamchatka for the sea till the moment when the unmerciful instinct takes them back to the native shores to part with the life in the name of its renewal. The world of spawning river is of special sort, tremendous and mysterious, and its harmony is easy to destroy. The spawning-ground die where the wood is cut down, marshes are irrigated, the cattle is pastured and land is ploughed up. The development of Kamchatka turned a troublesome side to salmon. However, the sensible approach to economy can prevail. It was possible to save actual inviolability of Kamchatka's "pearl" - the Kurilsky lake, the biggest Asian salmon spawning-ground.

- Ancient Inhabitants:

The main part of the Kamchatka’s population live on the coastal areas of the peninsula. The Itelmen, the Even, the Koryaks, the Chukchis, the Aleutians compose the indigenous inhabitants of Kamchatka

The Itelmen live at the west coast of the peninsula, as the most ancient people of Kamchatka they are only about 1450, who preserved the traditional way of life and their language. Mostly this people is concentrated in Tigil region and Kovran village. Generally they deal with hunting, salmon fishing, collecting plants. In winter time they use dog sledges - the traditional means of transportation.

There are also Kamchadals (about 9000 people) descend from Russian-Itelmen marriages and have no official status of indigenous people. They live in the valley of the Kamchatka river and in the south of the peninsula (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Elizovo cities).

The Koryaks (7200 people) mostly live in the north-west (the Koryak Autonomous Republic) – Palana village. There are nomadic and settled Koryaks. The main occupation of nomadic people is reindeer breeding and herding. Fishing and hunting for sea mammals is the main way to live for settled people. Both of them use fur-hunting a little.

The Evens (1490 people) live in the Bystrinsky Region – Esso and Anavgai villages. “Lamuty” (another name for this people) were engaged with reindeer herding, fishing and hunting. They used dogs only for hunting, not for sledding.

The Aleutians (390 people) live in the Bering Island – Nikolskoye village. The traditional occupation of this people is fishing and hunting for sea mammals, as well as collecting berries and plants.

The Chukchi (1530 people) is however native people of Chukotka, but still some of them live in the very north of the Kamchatka peninsula. They are divided onto nomadic reindeer breeders and settled hunters who exchange food between each other.

- Russian banya!

Russian culture differs from the European one. We are aware that the European culture bestows worthy tribute to Russian literature, music and ballet. We'd like to reveal for you one more element of Russian culture - Russian banya (Russian bath). This word misses even in European languages. In Europe (and in the whole world) they use the term sauna, though sauna and Russian banya are different.
The main attribute of Russian banya is steam. And one needs to know how to "prepare" steam. In the same bath steam can be light and dry, or tough and wet. You cannot imagine Russian banya without venik - a bunch of bound twigs. What might be more pleasing than to lash thoroughly the whole body with a birch or oak venik and then plunge into an icy font! It strengthens both body and spirit!
Russians are well acquainted with the benefits of Russian banya for health. A great lot of books are written about it. Don't lose your chance to live this experience once you are in Russia!

- Oh, this delicious Russian food!

From generation to generation Russian people kept traditional recipes. For example, Russian people have their own style of cooking vegetables, fish, meat, pies and bread. We use salt, pepper, onion, mastered and horseradish mostly with cooked meat or fish.
There are some differences about how we eat. The majority of Russian would have three meals during a day: breakfast, dinner and supper. For breakfast we would have hot porridge, boiled or fried eggs. During the winter time breakfast will be completed with hot tea or coffee or chocolate. Dinner will contain three dishes. Supper will depend on how big dinner was. It could be dairy products or vegetable pie, sandwiches.
Dinner for special occasions looks different. We would prefer to cook many different salads "Venegret", "Mimoza", "Olivie" which include several components vegetables, fish, meet, eggs. The second dish will be very traditional such as "Golubzi", "Pelmeni".
If you have the desire to cook some of the Russian dishes and do not know where to buy ingredients I will tell you. Every food store has them. Of course each cook has individual secrets, but you will have almost the same taste. For example if you want to cook salad "Olivie" you will need green peas, potato, onion, cooked meet, boiled eggs and carrots, pickles, mayonnaise.

There is some Russian a traditional recipe:

Salad "Olivie" with meat 1.Take 3 middle size carrots peel and boil till they will be soft. 2.2-3 eggs boil about 10-15 min. 3.Potato-about 3-4 cooked potatoes /do not peel during cooking time/ 4.Can or packet of fresh green peas. 5.1 onion. 6.1 can of pickles. Cut on small scubs, mix all together and add myonese. Decorate on the top with green paisley lives.

Buckwheat (grechka) - our favourite garnish, unfortunately it doesn't grow in Europe, because of its strange taste, but it's really nice:

Buckwheat Porridge recipe (Grechnevaya Kasha)

Ingredients :100 g buckwheat , 2/3 c water , 25 g butter
In Russia kasha was always made in earthenware crockery. Fill 3/4 of a pot with buckwheat groats, add salt, butter. Pour over boiling water up to the top. Stir in carefully. And put into the well heated oven for 3-4 hours. One hour before finishing, cover the pot with a large pan and turn upside down. A half an hour before serving, put wet fabric round in order that kasha falls off from the pot sides. Serve with cold baked milk or butter.

Bliny (Russian-style pancakes) is a Russian traditional dish. They are baked in a great quantity for holidays. Bliny making was a real sacred mystery. People told fortunes on the dough, kept their recipes of Bliny in secret. The first Bliny were put on the window-sills for poor people and pilgrims. The foreigners were very surprised at how many Bliny Russians could eat.
The most popular Bliny were made from buckwheat flour. Good Bliny must be very very thin. The thinner Bliny are the better your skill is.

• 1 cup of flour.
• 3 cups ofmilk.
• 1/2 ts soda.
• 2 tb vegetable oil.
• salt and sugar to taste.
• 2-3 eggs.

Mix eggs with 3 cups of milk .Add salt and flour and mix thoroughly.
The dough can be drained so that there are no flour lumps in it. Pour vegetable oil into a saucer. Peel an onion and cut it into 2 parts; take one part with a fork and dip it in oil. Use it every time for greasing the pan with vegetable oil. Heat the pan. Grease it. Pour thin layer of batter evenly. Add more flour if you are not successful with thin bliny. Cook until light brown, about 2 minutes on each side. Servings: 2-3.
Bliny can be served with butter, sour cream, black or red caviar, fillet of sturgeon, lox, and salmon.


Ingredients for the dough:
• 4 eggs,
• 200 ml of water,
• 600 gr of flour and make a hard dough.
Ingredients for the mince:
• 200 gr of minced beef.
• 200 gr of minced pork.
Then add some chopped onions, salt, pepper. You can add some milk or meat stock to make it more tender and juicy.
Now follow these steps:
1. Take some dough and make a "sausage" (1 - 1.5 cm in diameter)
2. Cut it in pieces about 0.5 cm thick.
3. Roll each one so that it becomes a circle 1-2 cm thick. Don't use too much flour as it'll make it difficult to stick the ends.
4. Put some mincemeat in the center.
5. Fold the circle so as to make it half round, stick the edges.
6. Cook in salted boiling water for 5-7 mins.
7. Take them out of water and serve hot with butter, mayonnaise, ketchup or sour cream.

NOTE: use much water to cook pelmenies as they can stick to each other. Don't forget to stir them from time to time. Also bear in mind that you can freeze them and keep in freezer for a long time. When you want to cook them, do not defrost them. Just cook as usual.

Soup and pirozhki:

Traditional soups originate from the Ukraine, such as borshch (beetroot base), and shchee (cabbage). These are usually served with a spoonful of sour cream, and may or may not have been prepared with meat for extra flavour.
Small meat or vegetable pies (pirozhki) can be eaten hot or cold, and are often found for sale on street corners.

Russian Borstch
· Ingredients
3/1/2c. canned tomatoes
5or6 med. size potatoes cut in halves
1 large carrot cut fine
1 small peeled beet
salt to taste
1 small onion chopped
4c. shredded cabbage
3/4c. sweet cream
1/2c. fresh green pepper chopped
2tbs. fresh or dried dill
1 celery chopped fine
2/1/2 qts. water
1/1/2c. diced potatoes
black pepper
· Method
Put water to boil in large kettle.Add 1/2 c. canned tomatoes. When water is boiling drop in 5 or 6 med. size
potatoes,chopped carrot and the beet. While this is cooking add 3 tbs butter in frying pan. When melted add chopped
onion,cook tender but do not brown. Add 3c. canned tomatoes and let simmer with onion and butter until a thick sauce. Set to
back of stove.
Into a separate frying pan put 2-3 tbs. butter to melt. Add 2c. shredded cabbage and fry.Cook tender but do not brown.Shred
another 2c. to add later to the borstch.
When potatoes are tender remove them to a bowl.Add 2tbs. butter, mash well,then add 3/4c. sweet cream and mix well and set
Add 1/1/2c. diced potatoes to the stock and the remainder of the shredded cabbage. When diced potatoes are tender, add the
onion-tomato- sauce, then add the cooked cabbage,and the potato-cream mixture. Add 3 tbs. butter to the borstch. Stir well.
Add fresh chopped fine green pepper. Add 3tbs fresh or dried dill. The more fresh dill the better the flavor..Remove beet,
one hour later after borstch is ready.
Borstch is ready to serve.Serve hot.
Serve with chopped garlic in your soup bowl and a fresh piece of bread and butter.

- Ukha - Russian Fish Soup
Kamchatkans love their salmon ukha and the first of the summer is often reserved for a caldron of soup cooked over a campfire with family and friends.
To make a properly flavored soup, first make a stock by boiling fish, which is then strained off and discarded.

6 cups water
1 kg of cleaned salmon salmon
1 large carrot, peeled and quartered
1 parsnip peeled
Bouquet garni (4 parsley springs, 4 dill springs, 2 bay leaves, 4 black peppercorns tied in a cheesecloth bag)
Salt and freshly ground pepper to taste
0,5 kg fresh salmon trimmings, including heads, tails, and body bones and all
0,25 cup vodka
3 boiling potatoes
2 carrots, peeled
1 kg skinned salmon fillets, cut crosswise into 0,5 cm pieces
5 tablespoons of fresh finely chopped dill and broad-leafed parsley
This lemon slices for garnish

1. In a large soup pot, place the water, 1 kg of cleaned salmon, onion, quartered carrot, parsnip, bouquet garni, and salt and pepper and bring to a boil over high heat, periodically skimming off foam as it rises to the top. Cover the pot, reduced the heat and simmer for 35 minutes.
2. Strain the stock through a fine sieve into a clean pot, pressing the solids with the back of spoon to extract liquid. Discard the solids.
3. Return the stock to the heat and add the salmon trimmings, vodka, potatoes, and thin carrots. Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat to low and simmer, covered, until the vegetables are tender, about 25 minutes.
4. Strain the stock into a clean pot, discarding all the solids except for the potatoes and all carrots. Rinse the potatoes and carrots, being careful not to mash them, set them aside.
5. Return the stock to low heat and simmer for several minutes.
6. Strain the stock.
7. Add the fish fillets to the stock and poach over medium low heat until cooked through, 5 minutes. Taste and adjust the seasonings.
8. Halve the reserved potatoes and cut into wedges. Cut the carrots into fine dice.
9. Divide the fish fillets among 6 or 7 soup bowls. Add a few potatoes wedges and diced carrots to each bowl. Ladle the stock into the bowls, sprinkle with scallions, dill, parsley, and garnish with lemon slices.

· Ingredients
400 g beef
1 small beef kidney
300 g marinated cucumbers
1 large onion
1 carrot
2 tbsp oil
300 g potatoes
50 g tomato paste
100 g sour cream
1 tbsp flour
2 cloves garlic
· Method
Several hours before cooking cut the kidney into two halves and put into large amount of cool water. Change the water often. Then pour hot water onto it. Boil it several times, removing water, and pouring new hot water again. Then wash the kidney in warm water and boil it together with meat, having poured cool water onto it.
Chop the onion, carrots, and cucumbers. Put them into a big pot, add oil, pour some stock, cover with a lid and simmer until ready (the ingredients must become soft).
Put the flour and tomato paste onto the frying pan and fry them together for a while. Strain the stock and put it with the stewed ingredients (onions, carrots and cucumbers) into a pot. Add potatoes cut into small pieces, the tomato paste fried with the flour, and the kidney and meat cut into pieces. Boil it. The rozsolnyk is ready when potatoes get soft. Put the chopped parsley and crushed garlic into it. When serving put some sour cream into a plate.


Shashliki is the most popular dish when you get out of town. It can be prepared from chicken or any other meat. First, you have to let the pieces of meat marinate in a mixture of vinegar and water overnight, then you grill it on fire, spraying a little bit of liquor on it while it's grilling.

Tsyplionok Tabaka:

• Ingredients
1 chicken
2 table spoon melted butter
• Method
Take a clean chicken, make a cut longwise the stomach, unfold it and beat it to make carcass flat. Tuck in legs and press wings to the back. Season to taste from both sides.
Heat the pan with melted butter, put the chicken on, cover and put the weight on. Cook on average heat for 15 minutes, then turn the chicken over and cook for other 15 minutes. Make the heat low and cook until done.

Cutlets from Wild Goat:

• Ingredients
4 cutlets
7 pork lard pieces
3 table spoon fat
1/2 c marinade (see the recipe of Marinade for Wild-Game)
· Method
Cut rib part of goat in cutlets. Keep in marinade for 2 hours. Beat up every cutlet with mallet. Lard every cutlet and fry in fat for 20 minutes. Before serving, pour over spicy sauce and decorate with green parsley. Serve with fried potatoes, Mushroom-Dishes and pickled fruits.